T1D Facts

Stage 2

In stage 2, individuals have two or more diabetes-related autoantibodies, but now blood sugar levels have become abnormal due to increasing loss of beta cells. There are still no symptoms.

Type 1 Diabetes: Stage 2

Info graphic showing the stages of Type 1 Diabetes, and how stage 2 fits in the picture.

In stage 2, blood sugar levels become abnormal, but there are still no symptoms of T1D.

Thanks to nearly 160,000 TrialNet study participants to date, we now know more about T1D than ever before.

Today, T1D is better understood as an autoimmune disorder that begins years before symptoms appear.

With TrialNet screening, we can identify individuals who are in the early stages of T1D. Increased risk of developing symptomatic T1D is linked to the presence of diabetes-related autoantibodies in the blood. Having two or more of these autoantibodies is now classified as early stage T1D. Individuals in stage 2 have developed abnormal blood sugar and are one step away from stage 3, clinical diagnosis.

The ability to diagnose pre-symptom T1D has become very precise and important to disease treatment and outcomes. When T1D is detected early, it can reduce the threat of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), improve mental outlook, and allow for earlier treatment to preserve insulin production.

TrialNet offers clinical trials exploring ways to maintain beta cell function for as long as possible. The goal of these studies is to slow down or stop disease progression. Our ultimate goal is prevention of T1D.

Current Research

If your screening results show you are in stage 2, you may be able to participate in a prevention study. These studies are looking for ways to slow down or stop the disease.

Teplizumab (Anti-CD3)

We tested the drug teplizumab to see if it could delay or prevent progression of early stage T1D (stage 2) and prevent clinical diagnosis (stage 3). In earlier studies in people newly diagnosed (stage 3), teplizumab helped to prolong insulin production. Learn more